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Choctaw AT -70 - Povijest

Choctaw AT -70 - Povijest



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Choctaw V
(AT-70: dp. 1.240, 1.206 '; b. 38'6 "; dr. 16'4"; s. 16 k .;
kpl. 86; a. 1 3 '; cl. Cherokee)

Peti Choctaw (AT-70) lansirali su 18. listopada 1942. Charleston Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., Charleston, SC, pod pokroviteljstvom gospođe L. Cordell, naručen 21. travnja 1943., poručnik JD Garland na zapovjedništvu i izvijestio Atlantsku flotu .

Od 17. lipnja 1943. do 8. svibnja 1944. Choctaw je služila na Bermudima, gdje je pomagala pri sastavljanju konvoja i novih brodova koji su prošli obuku s tegljačima i službama za vuču meta. Isplovljavajući 8. svibnja, 16. svibnja reklasificirana je u ATF-70, a 19. svibnja stigla je u Oran kako bi odvezla Holdera (DE-401! Za vuču za New York, gdje je svoju vuču isporučila 9. lipnja. Vratila se na svoje dužnosti na Bermudima do 22. srpnja, kada je otplovila u luke u Walesu kako bi uzela dva LST -a za New York, stigavši ​​30. rujna.

Nakon remonta u Norfolku, Choctaw je od 20. studenog 1944. do 8. prosinca otplovila na tegljenje u St. John's i Argentia, Newfoundland, kada je otplovila na sastanak s Huronom (PF-19). Odvezla je oštećeni brod za vuču za Bermude i Charleston i vratila se na servis u Newfoundland između 3. siječnja 1946. i 14. ožujka. Zatim je djelovala na istočnoj obali i na Karibima na dužnosti spašavanja i vuče ciljeve do 16. listopada 1946. godine, kada je stigla u Orange, Tex. Tamo je stavljena u proviziju u pričuvu 1. veljače 1947., a izvan komisije u pričuvu 11 Ožujka 1947.


Choctaw AT -70 - Povijest

Povijest naroda Choctaw u Oklahomi započela je 1820. godine kada su vođe plemena u središnjem Mississippiju potpisale Ugovor o Doakovom štandu, ustupivši bogata pamučna zemljišta u delti istočno od rijeke Mississippi za približno trinaest milijuna hektara u Kanadi, Kiamichi, Arkansas, i sliva Crvene rijeke u jugoistočnoj Oklahomi. Iako su se neke obitelji doselile u novu zemlju, većina je to učinila sve dok Andrew Jackson nije progurao svoj Zakon o uklanjanju Indijaca kroz Kongres 1830. Te godine čelnici Choctawa potpisali su Dancing Rabbit Creek, ustupivši preostali teritorij u Mississippiju i pristavši se preseliti na zapad. Tijekom jeseni i zime 1831–32, više od šest tisuća Choctawa stiglo je u ono što će uskoro biti poznato kao „indijsko područje“. Naselili su se prvenstveno oko skladišta Boggy u zapadnom dijelu svojih novih zemalja, Doaksvillea na jugoistoku i Skullyvillea na sjeveroistoku. Tijekom 1832. i 1833. stiglo je još oko pet tisuća Choctawa.

Građani svakog od tri tradicionalna okruga zemlje istočno od rijeke Mississippi općenito su ostali zajedno na zapadu. Dok su organizirali svoju novu vladu, zadržali su stare nazive okruga Moshulatubbee (sjeveroistok), Pushmataha (jugozapad) i Apukshunnubbee (jugoistok). Njihovi obrasci naseljavanja razlikovali su se od života na istoku prvenstveno po tome što nisu održavali zbijena sela, već su se nastanili na šire odvojenim farmama. Gradovi Doaksville, Skullyville i Boggy Depot bili su uglavnom trgovačka središta s američkim poštama, kovačnicama i trgovačkim trgovinama.

Iako je uklanjanje bilo skupo u smislu gubitka života, Choctaw je ponovno uspostavio svoju vladu donošenjem novog ustava 1838. Dokument je bio neophodan jer su se složili da će najzapadniji dio svoje zemlje dati u zakup naciji Chickasaw, čije je uklanjanje ugovor im je omogućio da odaberu vlastitu novu domovinu. Novi ustav Choctaw stvorio je za Chickasaw četvrti okrug, a također je slijedio postojeću podjelu ovlasti unutar nacije. Načelnici tri okruga formirali su izvršnu vlast, predstavničko vijeće zakonodavnu, a sudovi pravosudnu vlast. "Svjetionik" ili vojna jedinica provodila je zakone.

Nacija Choctaw 1842. donijela je novi ustav koji je uspostavio dvodomno zakonodavno tijelo. Iste godine nacija je preuzela kontrolu nad školama koje su osnovane pod pokroviteljstvom Američkog odbora povjerenika za inozemne misije (ABCFM) i Metodističke biskupske crkve. Misionari koji su radili u staroj naciji slijedili su svoje župljane prema zapadu. Vijeće je samo upravljalo Spencer akademijom u blizini Doaksvillea kao poligonom za mladiće od kojih se očekivalo da postanu vođe plemena. Nacija je također cijenila obrazovanje za žene i podržala žensko sjemenište Chuwalla (Chuwahla) na Pine Ridgeu u okrugu Puckshanubbee, žensko sjemenište Kunsha (Kunaha ili Koonaha) u Goodwateru, na istočnoj strani rijeke Boggy u okrugu Pushamattahaw, Ayannubbee (Ianubbee ) Žensko sjemenište u blizini Eagletowna i Akademija Wheelock. Metodistička biskupska crkva bila je zadužena za dječačke i djevojačke škole u Fort Coffeeu u okrugu Moshulatubbee i Akademiji Nanawaiya u blizini Doma Vijeća nacije (zapadno od današnje Tuskahome). Sredstva za te institucije dolazila su iz rente za zemljište ustupljeno ugovorom iz 1825. godine.

Do 1850 -ih godina stanovništvo nacije Choctaw bilo je mješavina ljudi. Neki su zadržali stare običaje, poput tradicionalnih brakova ili ritualnih udvaranja, u kojima je mladić proganjao djevojku, a ona je pokazala svoju spremnost ili nespremnost da bude uhvaćena. Do 1855. bilo je jedanaest kršćanskih crkava, s zajedničkim članstvom od 1.094, a 1860. ABCFM je izvijestio o dvanaest, s 1.362 članstva. Zakon Choctaw predviđao je da "nitko tko negira postojanje Boga, ili buduće stanje nagrada i kazni, neće obnašati nikakvu dužnost u građanskom odjelu ove nacije, niti će mu se dopustiti prisega na bilo kojem sudu pravde." Unatoč kršćanskom utjecaju, i dalje su se igrale tradicionalne Choctaw stickball igre. Tradicionalni ugostiteljski običaji i dalje su postojali u dijeljenju hrane, a terminologija srodstva naglašavala je podrijetlo po majčinoj liniji.

1850 -te također su donijele nove utjecaje u naciju. Oni su utjelovljeni u razvoju željeznica, u novoj gospodarskoj aktivnosti generiranoj slučajem Neto prihoda, koji je pokrenuo Peter Pitchlynn kako bi povratio prihod od prodaje zemlje Choctaw istočno od Mississippija, te u konačnom odvajanju Choctawa i Chickasawa vlade. Čelnici nacije Chickasaw bili su sve nesigurniji u svom statusu podjele vlade Choctawa, a granična linija između njihovih teritorija još je uvijek bila u pitanju. U isto vrijeme američka vlada je tražila zemljište na koje će naseliti neprijateljska ravničarska plemena prema svojoj politici rezervata. Ugovor iz 1855. godine zadovoljio je ove nekoliko briga. Chickasaw je stekao političku neovisnost, iako su zemljišne baze Choctaw i Chickasaw ostale u zajedničkom vlasništvu. Prava prolaza kroz željeznicu kroz ova zemljišta bila su zajamčena, savezna vlada pristala je na zahtjev o neto prihodima, a narodi Choctaw i Chickasaw su zemlju zapadno od 98. meridijana dali u zakup saveznoj vladi za naseljavanje zapadnih plemena.

U godinama prije građanskog rata ropstvo je bilo najvažnije pitanje. Američki odbor povjerenika za inozemne misije nedvosmisleno je odbacio ropstvo, ali su sami misionari, od kojih su neki radili među Choctawima od 1818., shvatili da žive u naciji s mnogo vođa koji su prihvatili tu instituciju. 1859. misionari su odustali od svoje pripadnosti ABCFM -u i pridružili se prezbiterijanskoj denominaciji.

Nacija Choctaw potpisala je ugovor s vladom Konfederacije 1861. Zbog broja robovlasnika među njezinim vodstvom, ljudi Choctaw bili su najjače predani narodu indijskog teritorija južnoj stvari. Pad Konfederacije značio je, međutim, da je Pet plemena bilo prisiljeno pregovarati o novim ugovorima s američkom vladom. Kao poražene nacije, bili su prisiljeni ustupiti teritorij i pristati na zahtjeve Sjedinjenih Država za proširenim prohodom željezničkih pruga kroz indijske zemlje. Savezna vlada ih je također prisilila da prodaju svoje zapadne zemlje. Tijekom pregovora o tim ugovorima, međutim, načelnik Choctawa Allen Wright predložio je da se naziv "Oklahoma" koristi za teritorij koji se predlagao za plemena nastanjena u toj regiji.

Rezultat građanskog rata bio je potkopati plemenske vlade. Sukob je otvorio indijsko područje za iskorištavanje željeznicom i neindijskim stočarima, rudarima ugljena i trgovačkim poduzetnicima. Iako je nacija Choctaw pokušala regulirati aktivnosti neindijanaca nametanjem pristojbi i licenci, a također je 1870-ih godina regulirati brak između plemenskih građana i neindijanaca, naciju su brzo preplavili negrađani.

Federalna politika asimilacije Indijanaca s kraja devetnaestog stoljeća, utjelovljena u Zakonu o općoj dodjeli (Zakon o Dawesove brojnosti) 1887. godine, nametnuta je naciji Choctaw u Curtisovom zakonu 1898. godine. Ovo posljednje zakonodavstvo, koje je ukinulo plemenske sudove i namjeravao ubrzati propast plemenskih vlada, također je kodificirao tekst sporazuma koji su narodi Choctaw i Chickasaw potpisali 1897. s Dawesovom komisijom u Atoki. Sporazumom iz Atoke provedena je dodjela, ali su također ostavljena i nalazišta ugljena i asfalta u sjevernom dijelu naroda Choctaw kao zajednička imovina za članove plemena. Godine 1902. Choctaw i Chickasaw potpisali su dopunu Sporazuma iz Atoke kako bi ubrzali proces dodjele i olakšali provedbu Curtisovog zakona.

Ubrzo nakon što je Curtisov zakon postao zakon, Pet plemena poduzelo je posljednji politički napor da spriječi raspad svojih vlada. 1905. njihovi predstavnici sastali su se na konvenciji Sequoyah kako bi predložili stvaranje indijske države koja će biti primljena u Uniju. Iako potez nije uspio, Konvencija Sequoyah postala je uzor Ustavnoj konvenciji Oklahome. 1906. Kongres je donio konačni zakon kojim se utvrđuje raspuštanje vlada pet plemena na indijskom teritoriju.

Dodatak iz Atoka sporazuma iz 1902., međutim, zadržao je Choctawsovo zajedničko vlasništvo ugljena i asfalta kao zajedničko vlasništvo. Ove "odvojene ugljene zemlje" trebala je prodati američka vlada kako bi plemenu omogućila prihod. Budući da se ugljena nisu prodavala u razdoblju nakon državnosti, vlada Choctawa nastavila je postojati i borila se za zaštitu ovih resursa. Neki članovi plemena željeli su distribuciju zemlje i minerala po stanovniku. Savezna vlada, međutim, prodala je tridesetogodišnje najmove rudarskim kompanijama, nadajući se da bi cijene ugljena mogle porasti. Godine 1942., tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata, minerali su postali vrijedni za ratnu industriju, a uslijedila su saslušanja kako bi se raspravljalo o tome treba li vlada nastaviti zakup, s njihovim stalnim prihodima za Choctaws, ili likvidirati plemensko imanje. 1948. američka vlada je sama kupila većinu ugljenog zemljišta od naroda Choctaw za 8,5 milijuna dolara. Pedesetih godina prošlog stoljeća američka je vlada vodila politiku okončanja posebnih odnosa između sebe i indijanskih plemena. To je 1959. godine dovelo do inicijative imenovanog poglavara nacije Choctaw da se preostali dio mineralnih posjeda plemena stavi u privatno povjerenje. Time bi se raskinuo savezni odnos i polovica prihoda trebala bi se likvidirati za plaćanje po glavi stanovnika.

Rastući nacionalni indijanski aktivizam 1960 -ih doveo je do ukidanja zakona o raskidu. Poslije su lokalne inicijative financirane saveznim programima za borbu protiv siromaštva dovele do ponovnog oživljavanja nacionalnog identiteta Choctawa. 1971. Kongres SAD -a vratio je prava pet plemena na održavanje narodnih izbora za svoje poglavare. U lipnju 1984. Choctaws je također usvojio novi ustav s ravnotežom ovlasti između izvršne, zakonodavne i sudske vlasti.

Početkom 21. stoljeća Choctaw Nation ostvarivala je prihod od igara na sreću (bingo i pari-mutuel klađenje na konjske utrke), proizvodnje i usluga upravljanja osobljem za savezne agencije. Ukupan upis plemena iznosio je približno 127 000 članova. Sjedište Nacije Choctaw održavalo se u Durantu u Oklahomi. Aktivnosti oživljavanja kulture uključivale su sate jezika Choctaw ponuđene putem interneta i godišnju proslavu Praznika rada na Choctawu, uključujući pjevače popularne country glazbe i vjerske službe uz pjevanje himni Choctaw. Nacija Choctaw postigla je gospodarski uspjeh čuvajući svoju povijest i promičući elemente svoje kulture.

Bibliografija

Choctaw Nation Papers, Western History Collections, University of Oklahoma, Norman.

Angie Debo, Uspon i pad republike Choctaw (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1934).

John Edwards, "Indijanci iz Choctawa sredinom devetnaestog stoljeća", Kronike Oklahome 10 (rujan 1932).

Grant Foreman, Uklanjanje Indijanaca: Iseljavanje pet civiliziranih plemena Indijanaca (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972.).

Charles J. Kappler, Indijski poslovi: zakoni i ugovori, 5 svezaka. (Washington, DC: GPO, 1904–1941).

H. Craig Miner, Korporacija i Indijac: plemenski suverenitet i industrijska civilizacija na indijskom teritoriju, 1865-1907 (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1976.).

James D. Morrison, Društvena povijest naroda Choctaw, 1865–1907, ur. James C. Milligan i L. David Norris (Durant, Okla .: Creative Informatics, 1987.).

Nijedan dio ove web stranice ne smije se tumačiti kao javno vlasništvo.

Autorska prava na sve članke i drugi sadržaj u mrežnim i tiskanim verzijama Enciklopedija povijesti Oklahome drži Povijesno društvo Oklahoma (OHS). To uključuje pojedinačne članke (autorska prava na OHS prema dodjeli autora) i korporativno (kao cjelovito djelo), uključujući web dizajn, grafiku, funkcije pretraživanja i metode uvrštavanja/pregledavanja. Autorska prava na sve ove materijale zaštićena su američkim i međunarodnim pravom.

Korisnici se slažu da neće preuzimati, kopirati, mijenjati, prodavati, iznajmljivati, iznajmljivati, ponovno tiskati ili na drugi način distribuirati ove materijale, niti se povezivati ​​s tim materijalima na drugoj web stranici, bez odobrenja Povijesnog društva Oklahoma. Pojedini korisnici moraju utvrditi spada li njihova upotreba Materijala u skladu sa smjernicama zakona o autorskim pravima Sjedinjenih Država & quotFair Use & quot i ne krši li vlasnička prava Povijesnog društva Oklahoma kao zakonskog nositelja autorskih prava Enciklopedija povijesti Oklahome i djelomično ili u cijelosti.

Foto: Sve fotografije predstavljene u objavljenoj i internetskoj verziji Enciklopedija povijesti i kulture Oklahome vlasništvo su Povijesnog društva Oklahoma (osim ako nije drugačije navedeno).

Citat

Sljedeće (prema Čikaški priručnik stila, 17. izdanje) preferirani je citat za članke:
Clara Sue Kidwell, & ldquoChoctaw (pleme), & rdquo Enciklopedija povijesti i kulture Oklahome, https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=CH047.

© Povijesno društvo Oklahoma.


Poseban pogled na povijest posjeda Choctaw Durant

Turnir u Choctaw Casino Resortu vraća se počecima pokera kao igra na sreću na rijeci Mississippi, a zatim među kaubojima i doseljenicima na američkom zapadu. Zapadna povijest domorodačkih Amerikanaca iz Choctawa i kaubojske i ranč kulture Oklahome glavni su dio casina i događaja.

Šetnja nekretninom nudi priliku za upoznavanje arhitekture i dizajna reprezentacije jugozapadne i indijanske kulture kroz boje, umjetnička djela i druge aspekte. Umjetnička djela s bivolima, indijskim ratnicima, kaubojima, kojotima i drugim aspektima indijanskog i zapadnog iskustva mogu se vidjeti u cijelom posjedu. Igrači na terenu sa kaubojskim šeširima norma su, kao da su upravo sišli s konja nakon dana provedenog na ranču.

Tijekom oba početna leta vidjeli smo mnogo krugova spremnih za laso u nekim loncima u udobnom Velikom kazalištu.

Choctaw je sada uspješan casino i ekonomski motor jugoistočne Oklahome, ali doći do plemena nije bilo lako. Bio je to dug put za ponosne Indijance Choctaw do uspješnog cvjetajućeg plemena kakvo je danas.

Veliki bingo za veliki kasino

Iako je kasino sada masovno privučen iz cijele Oklahome i sjevernog Teksasa, nekretnina je imala skromno podrijetlo. Godine 1987. pleme Choctaw Nation iz Oklahome otvorilo je palaču Choctaw Bingo, objekt od 28.000 četvornih metara koji je bio hit u Durantu i privlačio je igrače ne samo iz Oklahome, već i s druge strane Crvene rijeke gdje je kockanje bilo (i ostalo) ilegalno u Teksasu.

Uz velike isplate i puno zabave, posao je cvjetao. Palača Bingo postala je prva indijska dvorana Bingo koja je dodijelila milijun dolara sretnom dobitniku. Pleme će kasnije dodati bingo sadržaje u Arrowhead Resortu u Kanadi, trgovačkom centru Choctaw Village u Idabelu i u Pocoli, prema Fivecivilizedtribes.org. Bingo objekti zapošljavali su više od 200 ljudi i plemenu su osiguravali ključni prihod.

Krajem 20. stoljeća i u 2000-ima, bingo s visokim ulozima procvjetao je i postao će preteča velikih kockarnica u odmaralištima koja se sada mogu pronaći u cijeloj državi na plemenskim zemljama. Mnoga indijska kasina poput Choctawa koja sada imaju igre u rasponu od crapsa i blackjacka do pokera i automata za korijene imaju korijene u popularnosti binga s visokim ulogom, čija tradicija korijene vuče iz tradicije plemenske samouprave. Prema iscrpnoj povijesnoj knjizi Davida Schwatrza o kockanju, Roll Bones, Penobscot Indijanci iz Mainea i Seminoli s Floride bili su prva plemena koja su 1970 -ih počela nuditi bingo. Oklahoma je uskoro trebala slijediti ovaj trend 1980 -ih.

"1975. indijski Zakon o samoodređenju i obrazovnoj pomoći podržao je i ojačao plemenske vlade", prema Povijesnom društvu Oklahome Enciklopedija povijesti i kulture Oklahome. “Kao rezultat toga ... američki Indijanci u Oklahomi formirali su trideset i devet plemenskih vlada koje su bile federalno priznate. Ove nacije imaju ovlasti samoupravljanja, uključujući poslovna vijeća, a mnoge imaju plemenske sudove s policijom. "

Taj novi osjećaj samoodređenja bio je ekonomska blagodat za plemena u Oklahomi, uključujući Choctaw. Do kraja 20. stoljeća bilo je 23 binga i igara na plemenskim zemljama u Oklahomi. Do tada je osam indijanskih bendova uspjelo pregovarati s državom o igračkim kompaktima, uključujući Choctaw Nation.

Godine 2004. Oklahomans je izglasao dopuštanje proširenih indijskih igara koje su potaknule Choctaw da izgradi veći kasino 2006. godine i ponudi više tradicionalnih igara. Veći kasino izgrađen je na imanju 2010. godine, a dvorana za bingo na kraju je zatvorena.

Sada, zajedno s Choctaw Casino Resortu u Durantu, pleme se može pohvaliti s ukupno osam kockarnica u cijeloj državi.

Ponosna povijest

Prema podacima Povijesnog društva Oklahoma, narod Choctaw ima bogatu povijest u Oklahomi, koja je sada dom za otprilike jednu trećinu američkog Indijanca. Njezini ljudi ustrajali su u bolnim vremenima kako bi postali moderni ekonomski lider u državi.

Godine 1830. Sporazum o plesu Rabbit Creek učinio je Choctaw prvim indijskim plemenom koje je išlo Tragom suza iz svoje tradicionalne domovine u Mississippiju. Kao dio sporazuma, Choctaw je podijeljen u dvije skupine: Choctaw Nation iz Oklahome i Mississippi Band, koji su ostali i postali američki državljani.

Pleme je prebrodilo glad i preseljenje u svoje nove zemlje. Savezna vlada kasnije je ograničila njihova prava pripremajući se za ulazak Oklahome u uniju kao država. Savezna vlada također je zadirala u novu zemlju Indijanaca, a Indijanci iz Oklahome podnijeli su daljnje teškoće čak i nakon što je država ušla u uniju 1907. godine.

Unatoč stalnim borbama koje je pleme pretrpjelo, 14 Indijanaca iz Choctawa snažno je doprinijelo naporima SAD -a tijekom Prvog svjetskog rata, počevši od 1918. Kao dio 142. pješaštva, članovi su predložili korištenje svog materinskog jezika za prenošenje vojnih tajni na prvim crtama bojišnice u Francuskoj. Do tada su Nijemci presretali vojnu komunikaciju i razbijali kodove. Prijenosi Choctawa radili su i doveli do zaokreta na prvim linijama. Vojska je ponovno koristila probu u Drugom svjetskom ratu do velikog uspjeha. Dvadesetih godina prošlog stoljeća savezna vlada učinila je članove plemena američkim građanima.

Danas pleme Choctaw uspijeva i koristi dobit od kasina za zdravstvenu zaštitu, infrastrukturu i opću dobrobit svojih članova. Durant je dom najvećeg kasina u plemenu, a služi i kao službeno sjedište Choctaw Nation -a. Pleme je najveći pojedinačni poslodavac u gradu i ima ogroman gospodarski utjecaj u Oklahomi.

Poker Palace i više

Ove godine obilježava se treća godina kako je WPT došao u Casino Choctaw, koji je domaćin velikih poker događaja tijekom cijele godine. WPT stop privlači igrače iz cijele zemlje i postao je jedan od popularnijih i prestižnijih događaja na turneji.

"Imamo velika jamstva i velika polja i crtamo od obale do obale", rekao je član osoblja turnira Bill Bruce. “Pomaže nam u diverzifikaciji našeg izvlačenja igrača. Ovdje već imamo kružne igrače, a WPT je druga marka igrača, pa smo upravo pokrili cijelu poker bazu u cijeloj zemlji. To je strategija dovođenja ovdje. "

Bruce je radio osam godina pomažući u organizaciji turnira u Choctawu, a kaže da se vlasništvo nastavlja rasti i širiti, nudeći igračima više od iskustva poker turnira.

Odmaralište AAA Four Diamond nudi više od 776 luksuznih soba i apartmana. Bazen Oasis pokazao se popularnim i među kockarima i u obiteljima, koji se može pohvaliti s nekoliko bazena (uključujući zatvorenu oazu za pobjedu nad ljetnim vrućinama), 10 privatnih koliba, barom za kupanje i toboganom. Kako bi se dodatno ponudio kao odredište za obitelji, nekretnina je 2015. otvorila zabavno mjesto The District, koje sadrži 20 staza za kuglanje, arkadu, lasersku oznaku i kino.

Iste godine dodano je i Veliko kazalište (dom WPT događaja), Toplice i Spa toranj (286 soba). Kockarski kompleks nudi 4200 automata, 60 stolnih igara i poker sobu s 30 stolova. Brojni su restorani na raspolaganju, uključujući Steakhouse iz 1832. i bar i restoran Gilley's.

"Nakon što su izgradili ovaj prekrasan izložbeni prostor, bilo je jako lako doći ovdje i imati velike turnire", rekao je Bruce. “Oni zaista žele pružiti usluge poker igračima najbolje što mogu. Ovdje je to drugačiji dio života i lijep tempo. Ne biste mislili da biste htjeli otići na godišnji odmor u Durant, Oklahoma, ali očito je da je prilično popularan među poker igračima. Drugačije je od odlaska na istočnu ili zapadnu obalu. Mislim da mnogi igrači, bez obzira na turneju, zaokruže je u svom kalendaru i pokušaju doći ovamo. ”

Popularno među igračima. Sezona XVI označava treću uzastopnu sezonu u kojoj je World Poker Tour održao događaj u Choctaw Casino Resortu u Durantu, Oklahoma, i izgleda kao još jedno ogromno polje. Prije dvije sezone, u XIV. Sezoni, generirano je polje od 1.175 unosa, a Jason Brin osvojio je prvo mjesto u iznosu od 682 975 USD. Prošle sezone, Sezona XV, James Mackey je pobijedio na 1.066 mjesta i osvojio 666.758 dolara.


Plemenska vlast

Čak i s osnivanjem indijske agencije Choctaw, pleme još uvijek nije imalo vlastitu službeno priznatu vladu. Choctawova vlada nastala je tek usvajanjem saveznog Indijskog zakona o reorganizaciji iz 1934. Tim je zakonodavstvom okončana gotovo pet desetljeća u kojima se očekivalo da će se američki Indijanci akulturirati u društvo koje nije indijsko. Zemljište koje je činilo osnovu za sadašnji indijski rezervat Choctaw kupljeno je i povjereno 1939.

Članovi plemena izabrani su u privremeno plemensko vijeće koje je savjetovalo nadzornika agencije. Prvo vijeće činilo je deset plemenskih članova: Bob Henry, Houston Steve, Anthen Johnson, Pat Chitto, Joe Chitto, Billy Nickey, Dempsey Morris, Willie Solomon, Nicholas Bell i Baxter York. Za razliku od modernog plemenskog vijeća, prvo vijeće nije moglo uvesti zakonodavstvo ili odgovarajuća sredstva. Ove ovlasti neće biti moguće sve dok plemenskim ustavom ne bude uspostavljena federalno priznata plemenska vlada. Godine 1944. Choctaws je poslao predloženi ustav u Washington, D.C. U prosincu te godine 15.150 jutara kupljenih za indijski rezervat Choctaw izdvojeno je za pleme.

Bend Mississippija Indijanaca iz Choctawa federalno je priznala vlada Sjedinjenih Država 1945. godine, kada je federalna vlada prihvatila ustav i ratificirala ga glasovima članova plemena. Privremeno vijeće raspisalo je izbore kako bi se moglo izabrati službeno vijeće. Joe Chitto iz zajednice Standing Pine bio je prvi predsjednik vijeća. Vijeće sa šesnaest članova izabrali su ljudi iz Choctawa na dvogodišnje mandate. Predsjednika vijeća izabralo je vijeće. Do tada je indijska agencija Choctaw djelovala u osnovnim školama u većini Choctaw zajednica i sagradila bolnicu za članove plemena u Philadelphiji.

Sredinom 1970-ih, plemenski ustav izmijenjen je tako da narod bira poglavara plemena, čime se učinkovito uspostavljaju izvršna i zakonodavna grana vlade Choctaw. Istodobno je mandat članovima plemenskog vijeća povećan na četiri godine.


Saznajte više o Choctawovima

Indijsko pleme Choctaw Pregled ljudi iz Choctawa, njihovog jezika i povijesti.

Izvori jezika Choctaw Uzorci jezika, članci i indeksirane veze na jeziku Choctaw.

Imenik Choctaw kulture i povijesti Povezane veze o ljudima iz prošlosti i sadašnjosti ljudi Choctaw.

Indijske riječi Choctaw Popisi indijskog rječnika Choctaw.


Popisi stanovništva mogu vam otkriti mnoge malo poznate činjenice o vašim indijskim precima Choctaw, poput zanimanja. Zanimanje vam može reći o društvenom i ekonomskom statusu vaših predaka.

Dostupno je 3.000 popisnih zapisa za prezime Choctaw Indian. Poput prozora u njihov svakodnevni život, popis stanovništva Choctaw Indijanaca može vam reći gdje su i kako radili vaši preci, njihovu razinu obrazovanja, status veterana i drugo.

Dostupna su 642 useljenička zapisa za prezime Choctaw Indian. Popisi putnika vaša su karta da saznate kada su vaši preci stigli u SAD i kako su putovali - od naziva broda do luka dolaska i odlaska.

Za prezime Choctaw Indian dostupno je 1.000 vojnih zapisa. Za veterane među vašim indijskim precima Choctaw, vojne zbirke pružaju uvid u to gdje su i kada služili, pa čak i fizičke opise.

Dostupno je 3.000 popisnih zapisa za prezime Choctaw Indian. Poput prozora u njihov svakodnevni život, popisi indijskog stanovništva Choctaw mogu vam reći gdje su i kako radili vaši preci, njihovu razinu obrazovanja, status veterana i drugo.

Dostupna su 642 useljenička zapisa za prezime Choctaw Indian. Popisi putnika vaša su karta da saznate kada su vaši preci stigli u SAD i kako su putovali - od naziva broda do luka dolaska i odlaska.

Za prezime Choctaw Indian dostupno je 1.000 vojnih zapisa. Za veterane među vašim indijskim precima Choctaw, vojne zbirke pružaju uvid u to gdje su i kada služili, pa čak i fizičke opise.


Legende Amerike

Važno pleme iz obitelji Muscogean, pleme Choctaw prije toga je zauzimalo srednju i južnu rijeku Mississippi sa svojim teritorijom koji se protezao istočno do Floride u svojim najcvjetnijim danima. Svoje korijene vode do društva izgrađenog na kukuruzu koje je izgradilo nasipe i koje je cvjetalo u dolini rijeke Mississippi više od tisuću godina prije europskog kontakta.

Choctaw su bili pretežno poljoprivrednici južnih Indijanaca. Bili su poznati po brzom uključivanju bijelih običaja, razvili su pisani jezik i poželjeli dobrodošlicu Europljanima i Afroamerikancima u svoje društvo, zbog čega su postali poznati kao jedno od pet civiliziranih plemena.

Najstarija obavijest o tim Indijancima nalazi se u pripovijestima Hernanda de Sota iz 1540. Iako bi ovaj susret završio krvavom bitkom, pošto su brutalnosti ekspedicije postale poznate, Choctaw bi prigrlio europske trgovce gotovo dva stoljeća kasnije.

Kad su Francuzi, početkom 18. stoljeća, počeli naseljavati kolonije u Mobileu, Alabami Biloxi, Mississippiju i New Orleansu u Louisiani, sprijateljili su se s Choctawom, koji su im postali saveznici u ratovima protiv drugih indijanskih plemena. Iako su Choctaw u jeziku i običajima bili blisko povezani s plemenom Chickasaw, stalno su bili u ratu s njima.

Selo Choctaw, Francois Bernard, 1869

Kasnije su engleski trgovci uspjeli privući engleski interes, neke od istočnih gradova Choctawa, koji su doveli do rata unutar Choctawa, s onima koji su još bili lojalni Francuzima. Taj se neprijateljstvo nastavilo sve dok francuski i indijski rat nije završio 1763. Nakon što su Francuzi predali svoje američko vlasništvo Velikoj Britaniji, a donekle i prije toga, članovi plemena počeli su se seliti preko rijeke Mississippi.

Tijekom Američke revolucije većina Choctawa podržala je trinaest kolonija u pokušaju neovisnosti od britanske krune. Do trenutka kada je predsjednik George Washington pokrenuo program za integraciju jugoistočnih Indijanaca u europsku američku kulturu nakon Američke revolucije, mnogi su se Choctaw već vjenčali, prešli na kršćanstvo i usvojili druge bijele običaje.

Tijekom sljedećih nekoliko godina, Choctaw će sklopiti devet ugovora s američkom vladom, od kojih su posljednja tri bila osmišljena za pomicanje Choctawa zapadno od rijeke Mississippi. Tijekom razdoblja uklanjanja Indijanaca, predsjednik Andrew Jackson učinio je progonstvo Choctaw modelom indijskog uklanjanja. Godine 1831. gotovo 17.000 Choctawa postali su prvi Indijanci koji su pješačili Stazom suza do indijskog teritorija (Oklahoma.) Gotovo 2500 članova je stradalo na tom putu.

Posljednji ugovor međutim također predviđa da su članovi Choctawa mogli izabrati ostati u Mississippiju i postati državljani SAD -a, podložno zakonima zemlje i države. Otprilike 5000-6000 odlučilo je ostati, ali bi pretrpjelo pravne sukobe, uznemiravanje i zastrašivanje od strane bijelih doseljenika.

Choctaw u Mississippiju kasnije je reformiran kao Mississippi Band Indijanaca iz Choctawa, a uklonjeni Choctaw postao je Choctaw nacija Oklahome.

Čoktavi su uklonjeni zapadno od rijeke Mississippi počevši 1831., slika Alfreda Boisseaua, 1846. godine

Unatoč mnogim životima izgubljenim na Stazi suza, Oklahoma Choctaw ostao je nada i velikodušan narod. Prvi redoslijed poslovanja po dolasku u novu domovinu bio je pokretanje škole i crkve i izrada novog ustava.

Tijekom građanskog rata, Choctaw u Oklahomi i Mississippiju uglavnom je bio na strani Konfederacijskih država Amerike. Početkom rata Albert Pike imenovan je izaslanikom Konfederacije za Indijance. U tom svojstvu pregovarao je o nekoliko ugovora, uključujući Ugovor s Choctawom i Chickasawom u srpnju 1861. godine.

Neki su se Choctaw poistovjetili s južnjačkim uzrokom i nekoliko robova u vlasništvu. Osim toga, dobro su se sjetili i zamjerili indijskim udaljenjima od trideset godina ranije i lošim uslugama koje su dobili od savezne vlade.

Međutim, glavni razlog zašto je Choctaw Nation pristala potpisati ugovor bio je zaštita od regionalnih plemena. Ubrzo su na indijskom teritoriju, a kasnije i u Mississippiju, formirane bojne Konfederacije kao podrška južnoj stvari.

Nakon građanskog rata, vlada je u velikoj mjeri ignorirala Mississippi Choctawa i pala je u zamku, iako su nastavili prakticirati svoju kulturu kao i generacijama. U međuvremenu, Choctaw u Oklahomi borio se za očuvanje svoje nacije, jer je ustupanje zemlje zahtijevalo pet civiliziranih plemena, koja su podržavala Konfederaciju.

Također su morali osloboditi svoje robove i učiniti ih građanima. U sljedećih nekoliko godina vodili su se velike rasprave nazvane Choctaw Freedmen, ali su im konačno dodijeljeno državljanstvo Choctaw Nation 1885.

Godine 1889. vlada je koristila pristup željeznici prema teritoriju Oklahome kako bi potaknula razvoj i otvorila dva milijuna hektara za naseljavanje, što je rezultiralo Land Run -om 1889. Nacija Choctaw bila je preplavljena novim doseljenicima i nije mogla regulirati svoje aktivnosti, pateći od nasilni zločini, ubojstva, krađe i napadi novih doseljenika i drugih članova plemena.

The struggle over land with the U.S. Government continued and soon the Dawes Commission was established to end the tribal lands held in common, and allot acreage to tribal members individually and dissolve the governments of the Five Civilized Tribes. Though the nations fought hard against this, the governments were dissolved in 1906 and the following year, Oklahoma was admitted as the 46th state.

In World War I, the Choctaw served in the U.S. military as the first Native American code talkers, using the Choctaw language as a natural code. Tribal members also served in World War II, after which the nation began efforts to reestablish itself. For the next two decades they worked hard to attract and develop new businesses and fight legislation to eliminate Native American rights of sovereignty. The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma was scheduled for termination when Congress repealed the law in 1970, citing the policy’s documented failure in helping Native Americans.

The repeal set the Choctaw in a new direction and in 1971, the nation held its first popular election of a chief since Oklahoma achieved statehood in 1907. They also established a tribal newspaper, began to enroll more members, and launched a movement to preserve the Choctaw language. Before long, a new Constitution was ratified which provided for an executive, legislative and judicial branch of the government.
The population of the tribe when it first came into relations with the French, about the year 1700, was estimated from 15,000 to 20,000. Their number in 1894 was 18,981 citizens of the Choctaw Nation, 1,639 Mississippi Choctaw, and 5,994 Freedmen. Today, they number nearly 200,000 strong. They operate business ventures, both in Mississippi and Oklahoma, in Gaming, Electronics, and Hospitality industries, while continuing to practice their language and cultural traditions.

The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma and the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians are the two primary Choctaw associations today, although smaller Choctaw groups are also located in Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas.

Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma
P.0. Box 1210
Durant, Oklahoma 74702-1210
800-522-617

Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians
101 Industrial Road
Choctaw, Mississippi 39350
601-656-5251


The quirkiest roadside attraction in each of Alabama's 67 counties

After years of road-tripping across Alabama, I've come across many fun surprises on its roadsides. My favorites are listed here. Tell me yours by commenting or emailing [email protected]

BILJEŠKA: I'm saving historical and natural attractions for future slideshows.

(Source: PrattvilleAl.gov)

Bamboo Forest, Prattville.

In a section of a 26-acre area in Prattville called Wilderness Park, bamboo grows as much as 60 feet high and 6 inches in circumference. It was the first designated wilderness park in the country. In the 1940s, someone sent a packet of seeds to the owner of the property, who planted them. Before long the exotic plants covered a wide area of the property. The trees form a canopy overhead, making it a unique hiking spot, according to PrattvilleAL.gov.

Honorable mention: WC Rice’s Cross Garden, Prattville

Kelly Kazek | [email protected]

George Barber’s over-sized lawn ornaments, Elberta

Businessman George Barber, who created Barber Motorsports Park and Vintage Museum in Birmingham, commissioned several large artworks to decorate his property at Barber Marina, including the Lady in the Bay, four dinosaurs, a Stonehenge replica, and dozens of statues.

Honorable mention: Monument to Dentistry, Spanish Fort

Kelly Kazek | [email protected]

The Tree that Owns Itself, Eufaula

The sturdy 200-year-old oak in the yard of Confederate Capt. John A. Walker withstood a tornado in 1919. In 1936, local women persuaded the town council to deed the property to the 65-foot-tall, 85-foot-wide tree whose roots grew into it. A fence and marker were erected. But in 1961, the old oak was felled by a tornado. Since then, it has been replaced "several times," according to the Eufaula Chamber of Commerce. But each of the "sons of the Tree that Owns Itself" have also been liberated and have stood behind the fence and marker telling their story.

Honorable mention: Whiskey Bottle Tombstone claytna

(Contributed by Wil Elrick)

Ruins of Beehive Coke Ovens, West Blocton

The brick ruins of dozens of domed ovens are set into earthen embankments built by Cahaba Coal Company in 1883 in the town of Old Blocton, now known as West Blocton. City officials built a public viewing deck and preserved the historical site as Coke Ovens Park. The coke ovens totaled 467 at the height of production in the 1890s. They were used to rapidly heat coal to produce coke, which was a cleaner and easier-to-use form of coal. After operations ceased in 1909, the coke ovens were left to the elements. According to historical markers at the site, the ovens were used as shelters by hobos during the Depression. Click here to see more Alabama ruins.

(Contributed by Wil Elrick)

Three historic covered bridges

Blount is home to three historic covered bridges, the most in the state, and renovated them in 2012. The bridges are:

  • Easley Bridge in Rosa, a 95-foot span over built in 1927 over Dub Branch.
  • Horton Mill bridge in Oneonta, a 220-foot span built in 1934 over the Calvert Prong in the Warrior River. At 70 feet above the water, it is the highest covered bridge over any U.S. waterway.
  • Swann Bridge in Cleveland, a 324-foot span built in 1933 over the Black Warrior River. It is the longest in state.

Grave under theater floor, Union Springs

The Red Door Theatre building was initially Trinity Episcopal Church, built in about 1909 by architect Richard Kennon Perry when he was a local senior in high school. Some of the land for the existing Eley family cemetery was needed for the church, according to a history of the theatre on UnionSpringsAL.com. Some of the graves were moved, but the grave of Maj. Milton Butterfield, who died in the Civil War, remains. There is a marker in the church floor to indicate where the grave is beneath it.

Honorable Mention: Statue of a bird dog in Union Springs, the Field Trial Capital of the World.

Hank Williams Sr.’s Boyhood Home, Georgiana

This modest home on Rose Street in Georgiana is where Hank Williams Sr played guitar on the front porch in summer. In winter, he crawled underneath the house where he could feel "the warmth of the fireplace," according to hankmuseum.com

(Source: Berman Museum of World History)

Hitler’s Tea Set, Berman Museum, Anniston

The Berman Museum of World History isn’t a typical history museum. Instead, it catalogs the history of two prolific travelers and collectors: Farley and Germaine Berman. The couple collected art and cultural artifacts as they traveled the world, including a Tibetan religious icon dating to the 15th century, a royal Persian scimitar, a jeweled dagger that belonged to an Egyptian king, spy weapons and one of only two West guns in existence. Among the most unusual items on display at the Berman Museum is Adolf Hitler’s tea service. The silver tea set Hitler used while traveling.

Honorable Mention: World’s Largest Office Chair, Anniston

Kelly Kazek/[email protected])

Little Nadine’s Playhouse Mausoleum, Lanett

A child's grave in Oakwood Cemetery, in Lanett, is covered with a unique mausoleum – a brick house known as Little Nadine's Playhouse. When Nadine became sick with diphtheria at age 4, her parents, Julian and Alma Earles, were understandably distraught. At his sick daughter's pleadings of "Me want it now," Julian Earles had been building the playhouse as a Christmas gift but when his beloved daughter died on Dec. 18, the house became her mausoleum. The unusual grave site has appeared in a Ripley's Believe It or Not book and was featured in the book "Weird US: The ODDyssey Continues."

Honorable Mention: Joe Louis Statue

(Source: Karen G. Hill via FindaGrave.com)

Grave of Typewriter Inventor, Centre

John Pratt, inventor of the typewriter, is buried in Pratt Memorial Park on County Road 265 in Centre.

Kelly Kazek | [email protected]

Big Peach water tower, Clanton

The water tower at Clanton, visible from Interstate 65, is painted to look like a peach in honor of the county’s largest crop.

Honorable mention: Town of Verbena, only one so-named in the world

(Source: RuralSWAlabama.com)

Alabama’s first oil well, Gilbertown

RuralSWAlabama.org says: "On January 2, 1944, the State of Alabama granted Hunt Oil Company a permit to drill the A. R. Jackson Well No. 1 at Gilbertown, AL. Hunt Oil Company was owned by the famous oil man, H. L. Hunt of Dallas, Texas. The drilling commenced on January 10, 1944, and oil was struck approximately one month later at 2,580 feet in fractured Selma chalk. The discovery of this well led to the creation of the State Oil and Gas Board of Alabama in 1945, and to the development and growth of the petroleum industry in Alabama."

(Kelly Kazek the book "Weird U.S.: The Oddyssey Continues")

Frozen faces on tombstones, Mt Nebo

Isaac Nettles created four of these “folk-art” tombstones with concrete faces that are located in Mt. Nebo Cemetery in Clarke County. He created them by making molds of living subjects by pressing their faces in sand and pouring in concrete.

Historic water tank, Lineville

The Lineville water tank in Clay County, built in 1917, is listed on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage.

Log Shoal Creek Church, Edwardsville

Shoal Creek Baptist Church was built in Edwardsville in 1895 and is one of the few surviving log churches in Alabama. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. Open only for special events.

(Contributed by Wil Elrick)

Boll Weevil Monument, Enterprise

The World's Largest Boll Weevil Monument in Enterprise is the world's largest boll weevil monument – and the world's samo boll weevil monument. It was erected after the pesky insect destroyed crops, forcing farmers to diversify, as a reminder to how they overcame adversity. It was dedicated Dec. 11, 1919, at College and Main streets in downtown Enterprise.

(Source: Singing River Sculptures Facebook page)

20-foot aluminum musician, Muscle Shoals

This aluminum rocker, one of the Singing River Sculptures, is located near the library in Muscle Shoals. The 18-foot-tall figure is one of 13-15 planned for the Shoals area. They were created by Tuscumbia sculptor Audwin McGee using aluminum donated by Wise Alloys in Muscle Shoals.

Honorable Mention: World's Only Coon Dog Cemetery, Tuscumbia

(Source: RuralSWAlabama.org)

Last surviving Air Mail Beacon in U.S., Evergreen

According to RuralSWAlabama, the Kelly Act established U.S. Air Mail. In 1927, Civil Air Mail Route 23 was established between New Orleans and Atlanta and modified in 1931, leading to the construction of an emergency landing field midway between New Orleans and Atlanta." A tower had a rotating beacon to serve as a route marker. "This old beacon is believed to be the last remaining beacon for CAM-23 and possibly the last of the original Civil Air Mail route marker beacons remaining in the United States."

(Source: Fred the Town Dog Facebook page)

Grave of Fred, the Town Dog, Rockford

In 1993, a sick and bedraggled dog wandered into Rockford. The animal was called "Fred" and was nursed back to health by town residents. For the next ten years, Fred was the town mascot. Fred gained popularity through a regular newspaper column, "A Dog's Life," about his activities and encounters, and then national recognition after he was profiled on cable TV's Animal Planet. Fred died on December 23, 2002, and he was buried beside the historic rock Jail. Fred was inducted into the Alabama Veterinary Medical Association Animal Hall of Fame in 2004. Click here to see Fred's Facebook page.

(Source: City of Andalusia)

Where Hank Williams Sr. married Audrey Sheppard, Andalusia

In 1944, country singers Hank Williams and Audrey Sheppard were oženjen in a Texaco station on the west side of Historical Central Street in Andalusia. A marker was erected in 2003 and a mural was dedicated last month.

F-16 plane school mascot, Highland Home

From waymarking.com: "People driving to the Gulf coast on U.S. Highway 331 probably never expect to see the F-16 monument on the campus of a local school. The history of the display goes back to the choice of the team mascot. In 1941, the United States entered World War II. The eleven members of the school football team entered the military and the football program was dropped for the duration of the war. According to one news story, after the war, the people of this Crenshaw County community decided to change the name of the school mascot from Panthers to the Flying Squadron. They spent decades trying to get a jet fighter to symbolize their school, finally succeeding in 2008. It was dedicated on November 23, 2008."

Ave Maria Grotto, Jerusalem in Miniature, Cullman

Ave Maria Grotto at St. Bernard's Abbey features tiny replicas of world-famous structures, made from concrete and found objects by a hunchback monk named Brother Joseph Zoettl. In his lifetime, Zoettl built 125 mini structures at the Abbey. It is now open as a tourist attraction.

(Source: James Emery via Wikimedia Commons)

Replica of a Wright Flyer Model B, Fort Rucker, Ozark

The Wright brother's Model B replica hangs in the Army Aviation Museum. It was built in 1993 by the Virginia Aviation Company of Warrenton, Va.

Kelly Kazek | [email protected]

Face Well and Perine Well, Old Cahawba

Remnants of wells can still be found in the ghost town of Alabama's first state capital, now preserved as Old Cahawba Archaeological Site, including the preserved well on the E.M. Perine plantation that was once the deepest artesian well in the world. Its cool water was piped through the Perine mansion, making it the first air-conditioned home in Alabama, according to historian Jim Lewis. Another interesting fixture is an iron wellhead with a face shaped into it. Created in 1852, the Face Well is one of the most-photographed features at Old Cahawba. Click here to read more.

Junkosaurus Wrecks, Fort Payne

Local artist Mike Goggans, who spends his daylight hours as a responsible adult as a telecommunications engineer at Ladd Engineering, is the proud papa of a 21-foot-tall, 1.5-ton "baby" known as Junkosaurus Wrecks. It is one of several junk-sculpture animals at his roadside attraction on Lookout Mountain Parkway known as The Barnyard EIEIO.

Honorable Mention: Hosiery Museum, Fort Payne

Film set town of Spectre from Big Fish, Millbrook

By definition, Spectre, Alabama, isn't a real town – there are no human residents, stores or schools, or even pews inside its picturesque church. Spectre was created in the mind of Alabama-born author Daniel Wallace in his novel "Big Fish." When the book was being made into a movie in 2003, director Tim Burton discovered the little island in the middle of Jackson Lake, which is fed by the Alabama River, and breathed life into a once-fictional city that people loved so much they never wanted to leave. The set was left behind after filming and began to deteriorate. A few of the buildings burned accidentally. Today, the owners of the property have begun refurbishing the town of Spectre and turn it into a tourist attraction. Click here for the Jackson Lake Island Facebook page.

Poarch Creek Indian Museum, Atmore

According to the Poarch website: "The Poarch Creek Indians are descendants of a segment of the original Creek Nation, which once covered almost all of Alabama and Georgia. Unlike many eastern Indian tribes, the Poarch Creeks were not removed from their tribal lands and have lived together for almost 200 years in and around the reservation in Poarch, Alabama. The reservation is located eight miles northwest of Atmore, Alabama in rural Escambia County." A museum on the property tells the tribe's history.

Statue of Noccalula, Gadsden

The bronze statue of Noccalula, an Indian princess leaping over a massive waterfall, symbolizes a legendary love affair. The statue at the edge of the falls, originally called Black Creek Falls, was erected by the City of Gadsden to memorialize the tale, which states that Noccalula was the daughter of an Indian chief who fell in love with a courageous-but-penniless warrior. The chief insisted that his daughter marry someone of status and arranged her marriage to the chief of a neighboring tribe. Legend says on the day of the wedding, Noccalula allowed her handmaidens to dress her in wedding finery before slipping away and leaping over the edge of the falls. In his grief, her father renamed the site Noccalula Falls.

(Source: Fayette Historical Society)

Miniature replica of the City of Fayette

The Depot Museum operated by the Fayette Historical Society is housed in a historic train depot that features exhibits such as whiskey still and a Civil War-era drum. It was built by Historical Society member Bart Robertson.

Kelly Kazek | [email protected]

Barrel atop Frosty Inn, Russellville

Grissom's Frosty Inn was built in 1960 by Raymond, Betty and Homer Grissom in Russellville. It is currently owned by the Hester family.

Honorable Mention: King’s Drive-In Theatre

(Source: Constitutionguy2007 via Wikimedia Commons)

Constitution Oak, Geneva

The Constitution Oak is one of the oldest and largest in the state. It is located in Fowler Park. According to the City of Geneva website: "The Big Oak is as much a part of Geneva's history as its rivers. It can be found listed on the Alabama Forestry's list of Alabama's Famous & Historic Trees. This publication states this tree was a recognized meeting place when the town of Geneva was first settled. People gathered under this tree for meetings and information of the development of the area."

Kelly Kazek | [email protected]

Hay bale art on Jim Bird’s farm, Forkland

Located on Alabama Highway 43 between Demopolis and Eutaw, the farm is filled with artworks made from hay bales and junk, including discarded tires, bathtubs, hubcaps, pieces of wood, buckets, 55-gallon drums and whatever else is handy. Bird's art began in 1993 as the result of malfunctioning hay baler, according to RuralSWAlabama.org. "Bird's hay baler started spitting out bales that were rejected because of their out-of-round shape. Jim Bird used some of the rejected hay bales and created a caterpillar to surprise his wife, Lib, who was out of town," the website says.

(Source: Altairisfar via Wikimedia Commons)

Indian mounds, Moundville

Visitors can tour preserved mounds from the Mississippian culture and a museum. The site, used by natives from about 1000-1450 AD, had 29 platform mounds surrounding a rectangular plaza.

(Source: Dancin' Dave Facebook page)

Monuments to Dancin' Dave, Headland and Dothan

Before his death in 2015, Dave Whatley was a regular site around Headland. He always wore a sailor cap and loved to break into dances, entertaining those around him. To honor him, an artist created a Dancin' Dave fiberglass peanut – part of an art project recognizing the area's peanut production. In October, artist Charly Palmer created a mural in downtown Dothan featuring Dancin' Dave.

Kelly Kazek | [email protected]

World’s smallest city block, Dothan

A tiny concrete triangle on East Troy Street in downtown Dothan is recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records as the World's Smallest City Block. Click here to read more.

Kelly Kazek | [email protected]

Unclaimed Baggage, Scottsboro

Unclaimed Baggage, one of the city's largest tourist attractions, is also listed on dozens of sites as a must-see attraction. The massive store, more than 55,000-square-feet, sells used items recovered from lost luggage that is never claimed. The one-of-a-kind business has been featured on numerous TV shows and in magazines. Saznajte više ovdje.

Honorable mention: Rock Zoo in Hollywood

(AL.com File Photo/TAMIKA MOORE)

Magic City Sign, Birmingham

A replica of Birmingham’s original Magic City sign was erected this year, 60 years after the first was demolished. The original sign stood in front of the Terminal Station. The replica, by Goodwyn, Mills and Cawood, is 46-feet high.

  • Vulcan, world's largest cast-iron statue, Birmingham
  • One of last surviving dirigible mooring masts, Thomas Jefferson Hotel roof, Birmingham

(Source: BOW via FindaGrave.com)

Grave of notorious outlaw Rube Burrow

Rube Burrow, Dec. 11, 1855-Oct. 8, 1890, was known as the Jesse James of Alabama. He is buried in Fellowship Cemetery in Lamar County.

Click here to read about more notorious Alabama outlaws.

(Source: Carol Highsmith via Library of Congress)

Ruins of Forks of Cypress, Florence

The Greek Revival mansion called Forks of Cypress was designed by architect William Nichols for James and Sally Moore Jackson. Completed in 1830, the home was the only Greek Revival house in Alabama to feature a two-story colonnade around all four sides and composed of 24 columns. It was struck by lightning and burned in 1966 but its owners allow tours by appointment.

(Source: Jesse Owens Museum)

Replica of home where Jesse Owens was born, Oakville

The Oakville home were Olympic star Jesse Owens was born was reproduced as part of the Jesse Owens Memorial Park, which features a statue and museum. Owens shattered records – and Hitler's hopes of an Aryan sweep – in the 1936 Berlin Olympics, where he won four gold medals. He is one of 17 Alabama-born athletes who have won individual Olympic gold since 1924.

Kelly Kazek | [email protected]

Man buried in featherbed, Auburn

Billy Mitchell is buried in a crypt in Pine Hill Cemetery in Auburn. On his request, he was buried lying on his feather bed with his shoes tucked beneath.

Honorable mention: Marker at former site of World’s Largest Nehi Bottle, Auburn

Saturn 1B rocket at Ardmore Welcome Center

The Saturn 1B that welcomes motorists on Interstate 65 from Tennessee into Alabama is currently being refurbished.

Kelly Kazek | [email protected]

Ruins of Dicksonia plantation, Lowndesboro

Dicksonia was begun in 1830 by David White as a one-story home but it was extensively remodeled in 1856 by its second owner Wiley Turner. That home, built of wood, burned in 1939 and was replaced by near-replica thought to be fireproof. The home made of cast-concrete and steel was completed 1940 but it also burned in 1964. The ruins remain on the family property. Today the site can be rented for photography or events. Click here to learn more.

(AL.com File Photo/Mark Almond)

Hangar where Tuskegee Airmen trained, Tuskegee

Macon County is home to the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site. A museum is located in one of the original hangars at Moton Field where the pilots received their basic flight training.

Grave of Monkeynaut, Huntsville

Miss Baker was a squirrel monkey, one of two monkeys who would become the first animals to be launched into space by the United States and be recovered alive. Miss Baker was born in 1957 and made her 16-minute space flight in 1959. She and Able, a rhesus monkey, returned to earth healthy and were treated as celebrities. Able would die four days later from complications of surgery to remove electrodes embedded for her flight. Miss Baker came to live at the U.S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, where she died of kidney failure Nov. 29, 1984, and, at 26, was one of the longest living squirrel monkeys on record. She is buried on the grounds of the space center, where visitors sometimes leave bananas atop her grave. Click here to read more.

Honorable Mention: Eggbeater Jesus mosaic, First Baptist Church, Huntsville

Glover Mausoleum, Demopolis

The Greek Revival Glover Mausoleum built in 1845 on a bluff overlooking the Tombigbee River is one of the largest in Alabama. It holds burial vaults for 30 people. According to RuralSWAlabama.org, it was built by Mary Anne Glover, the second wife of Allen Glover. It was recorded in the historic American Buildings Survey in 1934 and listed on the National Register of Historic places in 1974.

Jerry Brown Pottery, Hamilton

Jerry Brown Pottery is the only known mule-powered pug mill still operating in the United States, according to the Hamilton Chamber of Commerce. Jerry Brown, who died earlier this year, was a ninth-generation potter. Pottery made from the mule-powered mill is still sold in Hamilton and the town holds an annual festival. Više pročitajte ovdje.

(Source: Albertville Chamber of Commerce)

Monument to the Fire Hydrant, Albertville

Albertville is home to the Mueller Company, which produces fire hydrants. To commemorate the 1 millionth fire hydrant manufactured at the plant, a chrome fire hydrant was placed outside the Albertville Chamber of Commerce.

(Source: Tad Denson, MyShotz.com)

MoonPie Over Mobile

In 2008, Mobile hosted its first New Year's Eve MoonPie drop. The event was marked with two World's Largest MoonPies, one edible and the other a 600-pound lighted version of the confection that is lowered for a countdown to the new year.


Mike Boucher's Web Page

These articles were taken from various sources and are individually referenced if known. Many are from articles in the Choctaw Nation newspaper called the Bishinik or from its predecessor Hello Choctaw. Much of their info was taken in part from older texts and books many that were long out of print. I gathered this information for my children and grandchildren so that they may appreciate the Choctaw part of their heritage. I hope that others may also benefit from reading about their ancestors and begin to see the Choctaw Nation’s part in the history of America. I have received permission from the Bishinik and from other publishers in some instances, to place these on the web. For those authors I have not been able to find, please contact me if you wish changes or deletions made.

With apologies, I cannot authoritatively answer your Choctaw related questions, as I learned everything I know from books and articles similar to those on my web site. Check them out from your local library or interlibrary loan. Many of the old books are now being re-published and can be found for sale on the internet. Sretno!

All material should be assumed to be copyrighted by the author, whether specifically noted or not!


Choctaw Indians

Choctaw Tribe: Meaning unknown, though Halbert (1901) has suggested that they received their name from Pearl River, “Hachha”. Također se naziva:

  • Ani’-Tsa’ta, Cherokee name.
  • Flat Heads, from their custom of flattening the heads of infants.
  • Henne’sb, Arapaho name.
  • Nabuggindebaig, probably the Chippewa name for this tribe, signifying “flat heads.”
  • Pans falaya, “Long Hairs,” given by Adair.
  • Sanakfwa, Cheyenne name, meaning “feathers sticking up above the ears.”
  • Té-qta, Quapaw name.
  • Tca-qtr£ an-ya-df, or Tea-qti ham-ya, Biloxi name.
  • Tca-t a, Kansa name.
  • Tetes Plates, French equivalent of “Flat Heads.”
  • Tsah-tfl, Creek name.

Choctaw Connections. This was the largest tribe belonging to the southern Muskhogean branch. Linguistically, but not physically, it was most closely allied with the Chickasaw and after them with the Alabama.

Choctaw Location. Nearly all of the Choctaw towns were in the southeastern part of Mississippi though they controlled the adjoining territory in the present State of Alabama. The small tribes of Mobile were sometimes called Choctaw. (See also Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, Alabama, and Arkansas.)

Choctaw Villages

From the earliest times of which we have any knowledge the Choctaw villages were distributed into three divisions: a southern, a northeastern, and a western, though a central group may also be distinguished. The southern division is fairly well defined by our several informants, but there is considerable disagreement with reference to the others. One authority gives but two divisions, an eastern and a western, and even cuts up the southern group between them. The following locations were established largely by Mr. H. S. Halbert (1901):

Southern or Sixtown Division:

  • Bishkun, in the northern part of Jasper County.
  • Bissasha, on the west side of Little Rock Creek, in Newton County, sect. 23, tp. 8, range 12, east.
  • Boktoloksi, on Boguetuluksi Creek, a southwest affluent of Chickasawhay River.
  • Chickasawhay, on Chickasawhay River about 3 miles south of Enterprise, Clarke County.
  • Chinakbi, on the site of Garlandville, in Jasper County.
  • Chiskilikbacha, probably in Jasper County.
  • Coatraw, 4 miles southwest of the town of Newton in sect. 17, tp. 5, range 11, east, Newton County.
  • Inkillis tamaha, in the northeastern part of Jasper County.
  • Nashobawenya, in the southwestern part of Jasper County.
  • Okatalaia, in the eastern part of Smith County or the western part of Jasper County.
  • Oktak chito tamaha, location unknown. Oskelagna, probably in Jasper County.
  • Puskustakali, in the southwest corner of Kemper County or the proximate part of Neshoba County.
  • Siniasha, location uncertain.
  • Tala, in the southern part of Newton County, between Tarlow and Bogue Felamma Creeks.
  • Talahoka, in Jasper County.
  • Yowani, on the east side of Chickasawhay River, in the southern part of Clarke County.
  • Abissa, location uncertain.
  • Atlantchitou, location unknown.
  • Ayoutakale, location unknown.
  • Bok chito, probably on Bogue Chitto, in Neshoba and Kemper Counties.
  • Bokfalaia, location uncertain.
  • Bokfoka, location unknown.
  • Boktokolo, location unknown.
  • Cabea Hoola, location unknown.
  • Chunky, on the site of Union, Newton County.
  • Chunky chito, on the west bank of Chunky Creek, about half a mile below the confluence of that creek with Talasha Creek-later this belonged to the southern district.
  • East Kunshak chito, near Moscow, in Kemper County.
  • Filitamon, location unknown.
  • Halunlawi asha, on the site of Philadelphia, in Neshoba County.
  • Hashuk chuka, location unknown.
  • Hashuk homa, location unknown.
  • Imoklasha, on the headwaters of Talasha Creek, in Neshoba County, in sections 4, 9, and 16, tp. 9, range 13, east.
  • Iyanabi, on Yannubbee Creek, about 8 miles southwest of De Kalb, in Kemper County.
  • Itichipota, between the headwaters of Chickasawhay and Tombigbee Rivers.
  • Kafitalaia, on Owl Creek, in section 21, tp. 11, range 13, east, in Neshoha County.
  • Kashtasha, on the south side of Custusha Creek, about 3 miles a little south of West Yazoo Town.
  • Konshak osapa, somewhere west of West Imoklasha.
  • Koweh chito, northwest of De Kalb, in Kemper County.
  • Kushak, on Lost Horse Creek, 4 miles southeast of Lazelia, Lauderdale County.
  • Kunshak bolukta, in the southwestern part of Kemper County some 2 miles from Neshoba County line and 1½, miles from the Lauderdale County line.
  • Kunshak chito, on or near the upper course of Oktibbeha River.
  • Lushapa, perhaps on Lussalaka Creek, a tributary of Kentarcky Creek, in Neshoba County.
  • Oka Chippo, location unknown.
  • Oka Coopoly, on Ocobly Creek, in Neshoba County.
  • Oka hullo, probably on or near the mouth of Sanoote Creek, which empties into Petickfa Creek in Kemper County.
  • Oka Kapassa, about Pinckney Mill, in sect. 23, tp. 8, range 11, east, in Newton County-possibly in the southern section.
  • Okalusa, in Romans’ time on White’s Branch, Kemper County.
  • Okapoola, location unknown.
  • Okehanea tamaha, location unknown.
  • Oklabalbaha, location unknown.
  • Oklatanap, location unknown.
  • Oony, south of Pinckney Mill, in Newton County-possibly in the southern division.
  • Osak talaia, near the line between Neshoba and Kemper Counties.
  • Osapa chito, on the site of Dixon Post Office, in Neshoba County.
  • Otuk falaia, location unknown.
  • Pante, at the head of Ponta Creek, in Lauderdale County.
  • Shinuk Kaha, about 7 miles a little north or east of Philadelphia, in Neshoba County.
  • Shumotakali, in Kemper County, between the two head prongs of Black Water Creek.
  • Tiwaele, location unknown.
  • Tonicahaw, location unknown. Utapacha, location unknown.
  • Watonlula, location uncertain.
  • West Abeka, location unknown.
  • West Kunshak chito, in Neshoba County, near the headwaters of Oktibbeha Creek.
  • Wiatakali, about 1 mile south of the De Kalb and Jackson road, in Neshoba County.
  • Yazoo, or West Yazoo, in Neshoba County, near the headwaters of Oktibbeha Creek, in sections 13 and 24, tp. 10, range 13, east.
  • Alamucha, 10 miles from Sukenatcha Creek, in Kemper County.
  • Athlepele, location unknown.
  • Boktokolo chito, at the confluence of Running Tiger and Sukenatcha Creeks, about 4 miles northwest of De Kalb.
  • Chichatalys, location unknown.
  • Chuka hullo, on the north side of Sukenatcha Creek, somewhere between the mouths of Running Tiger and Straight Creeks, in Kemper County.
  • Chuka lusa, location unknown.
  • Cutha Aimethaw, location unknown.
  • Cuthi Uckehaca, probably on or near the mouth of Parker’s Creek, which empties into Petickfa, in sect. 30, tp. 10, range 17, east.
  • East Abeka, at the junction of Straight Creek with the Sukenatcha, in Kemper County.
  • Escooba, perhaps on or near Petickfa Creek, in Kemper County.
  • Hankha Ula, on a flat-topped ridge between the Petickfa and Black Water Creeks, in Kemper County.
  • Holihta asha, on the site of De Kalb, in Kemper County.
  • Ibetap okla chito, perhaps on Straight Creek, in Kemper County.
  • Ibetap okla iskitini, at the head of the main prong of Yazoo Creek, in Kemper County.
  • Imoklasha iskitini, on Flat Creek, the eastern prong of Yazoo Creek, in Kemper County.
  • Itokchako, near East Aheka, in Kemper County.
  • Kunshaktikpi, on Coonshark Creek, a tributary of Kentarky Creek, in Neshoba County.
  • Lukfata, on the headwaters of one of the prongs of Sukenatcha River.
  • Oka Altakala, probably at the confluence of Petickfa and Yannubbee Creeks, in Kemper County.
  • Osapa issa, on the north side of Blackwater Creek, in Kemper County.
  • Pachanucha, location unknown.
  • Skanapa, probably on Running Tiger Creek, in Kemper County.
  • Yagna Shoogawa, perhaps on Indian branch of Running Tiger Creek.
  • Yanatoe, probably in southwest Kemper County.
  • Yazoo iskitini, on both sides of Yazoo Creek.

The following were outside the original town cluster:

  • Bayou Chicot, south of Cheneyville, St. Landry Parish, La.
  • Boutte Station, in St. Charles Parish, La.
  • Cahawba Old Towns, in Perry County, Ala., and probably on Cahawba River.
  • Cheponta’s Village, on the west bank of the Tombigbee River in the extreme southeastern part of Choctaw County, Ala.
  • Chisha Foka, on the site of Jackson.
  • Coila, in Carroll County, probably occupied by Choctaw.
  • Heitotowa, at the site of the later Sculleyville, Choctaw Nation, Oklahoma.
  • Shukhata, on the site of Columbus, Alabama.
  • Teeakhaily Ekutapa, on the lower Tombigbee River.
  • Tombigbee, on or near Tombigbee River.

A few other names of towns placed in the old Choctaw country appear on various maps, but most of these are probably intended for some of the villages given above.

Choctaw History

After leaving the ruins of Mabila, De Soto and his followers, according to the Gentleman of Elvas (see Robertson, 1933), reached a province called Pafallaya, but, according to Ranjel, to a chief river called Apafalaya. Halbert is undoubtedly right in believing that in these words we have the old name of the Choctaw, Pansfalaya, “Long Hairs,” and this is the first appearance of the Choctaw tribe in history. We hear of them again, in Spanish Florida documents of the latter part of the seventeenth century, and from this time on they occupied the geographical position always associated with them until their removal beyond the Mississippi. The French of necessity had intimate dealings with them from the time when Louisiana was first colonized, and the relations between the two peoples were almost invariably friendly. At one time an English party was formed among the Choctaw, partly because the prices charged by the Carolina traders were lower than those placed upon French goods. This was led by a noted chief named Red Shoes and lasted for a considerable time, one of the principal Choctaw towns being burned before it came to an end with the defeat of the British Party in 1750. In 1763, after French Government had given way to that of the English east of the Mississippi, relations between the latter and the Choctaw were peaceful though many small bands of Indians of this tribe crossed the Mississippi into Louisiana. The American Revolution did not alter conditions essentially, and, though Tecumseh and his emissaries endeavored to enlist the Choctaw in his favor, only about 30 individuals joined the hostile Creeks. The abstinence of the tribe as a whole was due very largely to the personal influence of the native statesman, Pushmataha, whose remains lie in the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, surmounted by an impressive monument. Meanwhile bands of Choctaw continued moving across the Mississippi, but the great migration occurred after the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit, September 30, 1830, by which the tribe ceded their old lands. However, a considerable body of Choctaw did not leave at this time. Many followed, it is true, at the time of the allotment in Oklahoma, but upward of a thousand still remain, principally in the neighborhood of Philadelphia, Miss. The western Choctaw established a government on the model of those of the other civilized tribes and that of the United States, and it was not given up until merged in the State of Oklahoma early in the present century.

Choctaw Population. Estimates of the number of Choctaw warriors between 1702 and 1814 vary between 700 and 16,000. A North Carolina estimate made in 1761 says they numbered at least 5,000 men. Common estimates are between 4,000 and 5,000, but even these figures may be a trifle low since the first reliable census, that of Armstrong, in 1831, gave 19,554. However, there may have been a slight increase in population after the beginning of the nineteenth century, when an end was put to intertribal wars. Figures returned by the Indian Office since that time show a rather unusual constancy. They go as low as 12,500, and at the other extreme reach 22,707, but the average is from 18,000 to 20,000. The census of 1910 gave 15,917, including 1,162 in Mississippi, 14,551 in Oklahoma, 115 in Louisiana, 57 in Alabama, and 32 in other States, but the United States Indian Office Report for 1923 has 17,488 Choctaw by blood in Oklahoma, 1,600 “Mississippi Choctaw” in Oklahoma, and 1,439 in the State of Mississippi, not counting about 200 in Louisiana, Alabama, and elsewhere. A few small tribes were gathered into this nation, but only a few. The census of 1930 returned 17,757, of whom 16,641 were in Oklahoma, 624 in Mississippi, 190 in Louisiana, and the rest in more than 14 other States. In 1937 the Mississippi Choctaw numbered 1,908, from which it seems that many of the Mississippi Choctaw were missed in 1930 unless the “‘Mississippi Choctaw” already in Oklahoma are included.

Veza u kojoj su postali zapaženi. The Choctaw were noted:


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